Transportation of goods by rail is carried out by various types of rolling stock. Depending on the nature of the cargo, the body structure, methods of loading and unloading, as well as ensuring the safety of cargo, there are:
1) Covered wagons - used for the carriage of goods in adverse weather conditions, as well as to protect the cargo from mechanical damage and theft.
2) Gondolas - designed for the transportation of bulk and bulk cargoes: coal, ore, fluxes, timber, etc., as well as piece and stack cargoes: equipment, substations, containers.
3) Platforms - designed for the carriage of oversized cargo, such as timber, building materials, wheeled vehicles.
4) Tanks - used for transportation of flour, cement, liquids: oil, aggressive liquid and chemically active substances, liquefied gas (propane-butane, oxygen), water, milk (milk tanker), molasses.
5) Isothermal - covered freight cars are designed for the transport of perishable goods. The body of an isothermal car to reduce heat losses is provided with thermal insulation from polystyrene, polyurethane foam and other materials, and has facilities for the rational distribution of cargo. To maintain a constant and uniform air temperature, an isothermal car may have cooling and heating devices, devices for forced air circulation and ventilation of a cargo room.
6) Hopper - a self-unloading bunker freight car for the transport of bulk bulk cargoes: coal, ore, cement, grain, ballast.
7) Refrigerator - universal covered wagons are designed for the transport of perishable goods, long-term storage of which is possible only at low temperatures (often at below 0 ° C).
8) A thermos car is an isothermal car designed for the transport of thermally prepared perishable goods. Unlike refrigerated cars, they do not have a refrigeration unit that maintains the temperature of the cargo en route due to thermal insulation of the cargo space and the amount of thermal energy when loading the cargo. As a result, thermos-wagons have restrictions on the timing and distance of the carriage of goods in them.